At Defiance Fuel, we are primarily concerned with the overall well being of athletes. One of the
best ways to show the overall state of a subject is through measuring the overall body
composition by using a Bio-Electric Impedance Device (BIA).
BIA measurements consist of many factors including the following:
ICW – Intracellular Water or water inside the cells.
ECW – Extracellular Water or water outside the cells.
TBW – Total Body Water or ICW+ECW
Parallel Capacitance, Cellular Capacitance or Cell Charge
BMR – Basil Metabolic Rate
Phase Angle – a measurement of your body’s overall health.
Hydration is one of the most important indicators of and contributors to overall cell health,
according to the Centers for Disease Control. When we are young children, our skin and organs
contain an abundant supply of water. Not only is the water content high, it is also highly mobile
Professor Seiji Katayama in Japan discovered that as we age, the mobility of the cell water
dramatically slows. The suggested ideal ratio of water in a cell system is 60/40: 60% on the
inside of the cell (intracellular water or ICW) and 40% outside (extracellular water or ECW). In
adults, total water weight averages optimally 60% of the body weight.
In a young healthy child, water is 70% of the body weight, with a 60/40 ratio of ICW to ECW,
and the dominant water type is active, unbound H2O molecules. In an average middle-aged
adult, the total body moisture content drops to 50% total body water, a ratio of 50/50 intracellular
moisture to extracellular moisture, and the water is far more bound or less mobile. Tightly bound
water does little to assist in nutrient delivery or waste removal through the cell membrane. By
the time we have reached the age of 65, the average total body water is 45% of body weight or
lower, with a ratio of 40/60 intracellular moisture to extracellular moisture and very little active
water – this is condition called edema.
Professor Michael Levitt, Chairman, Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, and
Dr. Mark Gerstein, Yale University, have shown that ONE average human cell contains
BILLIONS of water molecules, and that water is fundamental in giving proteins their structure
When intracellular hydration levels are low and water mobility is compromised, the structure and
function of proteins, enzymes and even DNA can be radically affected. Interestingly, according
to Dr. Gerald Pollack at the University of Washington, “99% of all molecules in the body are
If one had a beverage or mechanism to improve this ratio, meaning increasing ICW and
decreasing ECW that tends toward the 60/40 ratio, then that would be ideal. Hypothetically
speaking, lets postulate for a minute that we have such a beverage and have increased ICW and
lowered ECW. Let’s also postulate that this beverage would start to get the water moving in and
out of the cell with much greater frequency and volume, water mobility if you will. What would
then manifest that can be measured?
Cell charge or Parallel Capacitance is what we can measure. In order to explain this, lets use the
analogy of a car battery. If the battery water is low, there is low potential energy. If the water
level is high, then there is greater potential energy. If one can improve the ICW/ECW ratios and
get this water moving more rapidly and with greater volume in and out of the cell, then the cell
would generate a greater cell charge or parallel capacitance. Imagine this cell charge increasing
throughout your body. What manifestation would this create that can be measured?
If water mobility has increased and the cell motors are creating more voltage or cell charge, it
only stands to reason that one would need to burn more fuel. This is measured by Basil
Metabolic Rate (BMR). BMR is a measure of how much fuel the body engine is burning. It is
determined by how many cells are producing oxidative energy. This energy is converted into
ATP and Ribose sugar molecules. The more cells producing this energy, the more fuel the body
An engine that has the proper water mobility, high potential energy (Cell Charge) and burns
more fuel (BMR), is a fine tuned motor indeed. This typically measured by Phase Angle and is an indicator of overall health. While this indicator can sometimes give false reads as in a high
number from dehydration, under normal circumstances, it tells a tale of illness or health. The
healthier the subject, the higher the phase angle will be. The less healthy the subject, the lower
the Phase Angle.
So there you have it!
Increase ICW/ECW ratios, thereby improving water mobility, then more cell charge will
typically manifest. This heightened potential energy needs fuel to burn increasing the BMR. The
more all of these mechanisms happen in symphony and in balance, the healthier the subject.
Defiance Fuel was subjected to a double blind, placebo controlled test on 336 patients that have
difficulty hydrating. This patient class was chosen intentionally for the express challenge to see
if we could improve the state of a difficult group. The logic behind this was that if we could
positively affect this group, then just imagine what we could do for a healthier class.
- The results are as follows:
A statistical improvement of ICW/ECW ratios.
A statistical improvement in Parallel Capacitance
A statistical improvement in BMR (Basil Metabolic Rate)
A statistical improvement in Phase Angel (Overall Health)
Bam!!!! Get your Phase Angle On!!!