Ultra-Hydrating Water Delivery System Technology

A Measure of Intracellular Hydration

According to the Centers for Disease Control, hydration is one of the most important indicators of and contributors to overall cell health. When we are young children, our skin and organs contain an abundant supply of water. Not only is the water content high, it is also highly mobile and has an abundance of clustered, highly mobile H2O molecules. If you have ever changed a diaper you know how mobile the water can be!

Professor Seiji Katayama in Japan discovered that as we age, the mobility of the cell water dramatically slows.



The suggested ideal ratio of water in a cell system is 60/40: 60% on the inside of the cell (intracellular water or ICW) and 40% outside (extracellular water or ECW). In adults, total water weight averages optimally 60% of the body weight.

In a young healthy child, water is 70% of the body weight, with a 60/40 ra
tio of ICW to ECW, and the dominant water type is active (clustered H2O molecules). In an average middle-aged adult, the total body moisture content drops to 50% total body water, a ratio of 50/50 intracellular moisture to extracel
lular moisture, and the water is far more bound or less mobile. Tightly bound water does little to assist in nutrient delivery or waste removal through the cell membrane. By the time we have reached the age of 65, the average total body water is 45% of body weight or lower, with a ratio of 40/60 intracellular moisture to extracellular moisture and very little active water.

Professor Michael Levitt, Chairman, Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, and Dr. Mark Gerstein, Yale University, have shown that ONE average human cell contains BILLIONS of water molecules, and that water is fundamental in giving proteins their structure and function.

When intracellular hydration levels are low and water mobility is compromised, the structure and function of proteins, enzymes and even DNA can be radically affected. Interestingly, according to Dr. Gerald Pollack at the University of Washington, “99% of all molecules in the body are water.”

As stated by Professors Florian Garczarek and Klaus Gerwert in Germany, “functional bioactive water is as important to cellular processes as amino acids.”

Technology Description


A Defiance Fuel co-founder developed a Patented Water treatment process that exposes fluids to strong magnetic and light energies in a timed cycle. The resulting fluids stimulate faster tissue absorption and result in higher cell membrane charge called parallel capacitance (PC). Consuming Defiance Fuel encourages body moisture adjustment to the desired 60/40 ratio of ICW to ECW, regardless of age or health (see the bio-impedance analysis chart below of a Type II diabetes patient). It is important to note that an abundance of active intracellular water (ICW) increases overall cell energetics.

Consuming 1.5 liters of Defiance Fuel daily, intracellular water levels increased significantly in three weeks.

The Defiance Fuel ultra hydrating solution helps restore and improve water mobility, and can double as a delivery system promoting absorption of selected sub-micron processed nutrients while greatly amplifying the efficacy as documented in numerous studies.

What is parallel cellular capacitance?

All living things are made of cells. Cells are membrane bounded compartments filled with a concentrated solution of chemicals and salts. Groups of cells perform specialized functions and are linked by an intricate communications system. The cell membrane maintains an ion concentration gradient between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. This gradient creates an electrical potential difference across the membrane which is essential to cell survival. Electrical gradients are necessary to support movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients. Therefore, the cell membrane has electrically insulting qualities of capacitance.

Electrical capacitance will increase or decrease depending on the health and the number of cells. Damage to the cell membrane, and its functions, is as lethal to the cell as direct damage to the nucleus itself.

Why is parallel cellular capacitance important?

The cell membrane functions as a permeable barrier separating ICW and the cytoplasm with its components, and ECW. The lipid membrane is transversed by channels made of proteins which control fluid movement, thus making these channels the modes of transport where water, ions and other chemicals can enter and exit the cell.

Bioimpedance analysis prediction equations have been developed that use parallel capacitance, resistance and reactance as predictors of extracellular mass and body cell mass. Examining ICW/ECW ratios, resistance, membrane electrical charge, and other measurements, we can immediately see differences in healthy tissues compared to tissues affected by degenerative diseases.


A body builder, for example, would have a high parallel capacitance and low resistance, or more cell volume, because he is extremely muscular and fit. A malnourished AIDS patient would have a low parallel capacitance. Parallel capacitance is not effected by weight or body fat. It is a measure of cell membrane health in all living substances and can change dramatically depending on disease or good health.

In a double blind study with 336 Type II diabetic patients, we significantly increase PC when compared to control water.

Defiance Fuel (DF) compared to distilled water (DW) in 336 diabetic patients. Published in Science and Technology Daily.

Validating Technology with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating the human body composition. The technology is relatively simple, quick and noninvasive. BIA is currently used in diverse settings, including the U.S. Military, health practitioner offices, health clubs, and hospitals, and across a spectrum of ages, body weights, and disease states. Despite a general public perception that BIA is merely a measurement of “body fat”, the technology actually determines the electrical impedance of body tissues, which provides an estimate of total body water (TBW). Using values of TBW derived from BIA, one can then estimate fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat. In addition to its use in estimating body fat, BIA is beginning to be used in the estimation of body cell mass and TBW in a variety of clinical conditions.

BIA measures the opposition of body tissues to the flow of a small alternating current. Impedance is a function of two components: the resistance of the tissues themselves, and the additional opposition (reactance) due to the capacitance (cell charge energy) of cellular membranes.

Application of BIA increasingly use multi-frequency measurements, or a frequency spectrum, to evaluate differences in body composition caused by individual subject’s clinical and nutritional status (e.g., “phase angle” or ratio between “reactance” and “resistance”, ratio between moisture inside the cells, or “intracellular water” (ICW), and moisture outside the cells, or “extracellular water” (ECW), and “parallel capacitance” or ion concentration gradient essential for cell survival.

Is BIA Safe?

Users of the BIA procedure consider it safe because of several factors. One factor is that currents at frequency of 50 kHz are reported to be unlikely to stimulate electrically excitable tissues, such as nerves or cardiac muscle. Another is the absence of any reports of untoward events induced by BIA, even in the course of thousands of individuals undergoing measurements. A third factor is that relatively small current magnitudes are involved, less than 1 mA, which are less than the threshold of perception. Furthermore, the use of batteries of low-voltage power sources greatly diminishes risk.

Because of the accessibility and widespread use of this technology, the National Institute of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research and the National Institute of of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, along with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Aging, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the United States Department of Agriculture, convened a technology assessment conference to evaluate the validity and interpretation of data derived by BIA for the estimation of body composition. The conference brought together scientist with expertise in a variety of disciplines including nutrition, epidemiology, physiology, metabolism, biomedical engineering, and the clinical practice of medicine. The instrumentation for BIA, along with variations in techniques for its use, was examined in detail. Variables influencing the measurement of BIA and the need for standardization of testing conditions were considered. The applicability of BIA to a variety of conditions in both health and disease were examined.

BIA Conclusions

BIA provides a reliable estimate of total body water under most conditions. It can be a useful technique for body composition analysis in healthy individuals and in those with a number of chronic conditions such as mild-to-moderate obesity, diabetes melitus, and other medical conditions in which major disturbances of water distribution are not prominent.

To validate Defiance Fuel ultra hydration delivery system technology it is recommended that an inexpensive BIA is conducted when beginning the use of Defiance Fuel functional beverages. A subsequent BIA administered 14 – 30 days later will demonstrate an improvement in ICW/ECW ratios and phase angle. Phase Angle is a BIA test that indicates overall cellular health.

So What Next?

What do your BIA results indicate?
The BIA yields resistance and reactance measurements which translate to phase angle, an indicator of cellular health and integrity, which should optimally measure 7+, ICW/ECW ratio which is optimally measures 60% ICW and 40% ECW and cellular parallel capacitance which in optimum health states measures over 1,000 pico farads. These numerics are a snapshot of overall cell energetics.

What is the simplest way to begin increasing BIA results or healthy body numerics?
Ingest a minimum of 1 liter of Defiance Fuel ultra hydrating solution daily.

What else do I do and how long?
High potassium low sodium diet filled with dark green leafy vegetables, daily exercise and regular bedtime for at least 60 days but, you may see BIA improvements in 14 days or less.

What is happening in my body when all of this change is taking place with phase angle and cellular capacitance and how does that translate to a healthier body?
Moisture is redistributed internally thereby increasing your intracellular water to extracellular water ratio which compliments whole body restoration.


Patent Protected. The first U.S. patent was granted for this technology in 1998 and the second in 2000. Several others are pending.

Defiance Fuel’s technology hydrates more effectively when compared to regular water.

Heightens metabolic efficiency (…assists in the removal of cell waste, now identified as a factor in abnormal cell function and recovery …)

In summary, Defiance Fuel’s ultra hydrating delivery system optimizes cell absorption, assists in cellular waste removal and increases overall cell energetics.


[1] Donald P Kotler, S. Burastero, J. Wang, R.N. Pierson Jr. “Prediction of body cell mass, fat-free mass, and total body water with bioelectrical impedance analysis: effects of race, sex, and disease” Am. J. of Clinical Nutrition 64:3 Sep 1996.
R. Liedtke “Fundamentals of Bioelectrical Impedance” http://rjlsystems.com
Addendum: Biomolecule Amplification Study
In vitro biological activity of clustered water solutions of Folium guava elaborated by TM and MVF techniques
Losoya1X., Carrillo2 F., Aguero1 J. Sayavedra2J., Lorenzen3 L.
1. Phytomedicamenta S.A de C.V., Mexico; 2. Cluster Solutions Inc. de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico; 3. Cluster Solutions Inc., Irvine California, USA